Maungauika / North Head Historic Reserve
North Head is the raised eastern headland of Devonport, of which the volcano Maungauika forms part. The volcano cone itself was officially named Maungauika (meaning Mountain of Uika in maori) in 2014 as part of a Treaty of Waitangi claim settlement. Originally there were three cone pa in the Devonport area – North Head, Mt Victoria (Takarunga) and Mt Cambria, which has subsequently been quarried away.
North Head is mainly known for its spectacular views over the harbour and Hauraki Gulf and for its network of old tunnels and bunkers left over from its days as a defence installation.
Historical Coastal Defence Site
North Head is acknowledged to be the most historically significant coastal defence site in New Zealand. Its commanding position was a perfect viewpoint to guard against seafaring attackers. In fact it has been used as a lookout for centuries, initially by early maoris and subsequently by European settlers.
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- From 1731 to 1734
- Through the 1763
- On March 20, 1764
From 1731 to 1734, the French constructed Fort St. Frédéric, which gave the French control of the New France/Vermont frontier region in the Lake Champlain Valley. With the outbreak of the French and Indian War in 1754, the North American front of the Seven Years’ War between the French and English, the French began construction of Fort Carillon at present-day Ticonderoga, New York in 1755. The British failed to take Fort St. Frédéric or Fort Carillon between 1755 and 1758. In 1759, a combined force of 12,000 British regular and provincial troops under Sir Jeffery Amherst captured Carillon, after which the French abandoned Fort St. Frédéric. Amherst constructed Fort Crown Point next to the remains of the Fort St. Frédéric, securing British control over the area.
Following France’s loss in the French and Indian War, through the 1763 Treaty of Paris they ceded control of the land to the British. Colonial settlement was limited by the Crown to lands east of the Appalachians, in order to try to end encroachment on Native American lands. The territory of Vermont was divided nearly in half in a jagged line running from Fort William Henry in Lake George diagonally north-eastward to Lake Memphremagog. With the end of the war, new settlers arrived in Vermont. Ultimately, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and New York all claimed this frontier area.
On March 20, 1764, King George III established the boundary between New Hampshire and New York along the west bank of the Connecticut River, north of Massachusetts, and south of 45 degrees north latitude. In 1770, Ethan Allen, his brothers Ira and Levi, and Seth Warner, recruited an informal militia known as the Green Mountain Boys to protect the interests of the original New Hampshire settlers against newcomers from New York.
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Vermont, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.